Diamond, whose name is Greek for "unbreakable", formed at a depth of about 200 km under the earth under enormous pressure and heat. They come to the surface during volcanic eruptions, or mined in the old volcanic zones. Age of the diamond is from 990 million to 4.2 billion years.
Diamond - a diamond that was cut in such a way as to emphasize the natural brilliance of the stone. To learn how perfect is the diamond, his estimate for the 4th characterized as "4C": carat, color, cut and purity.
Carat is used as a unit of weight of precious stones and corresponds to 1.5 grams. The higher the carat of the diamond, the higher its price. Several outstanding diamonds found worldwide fame thanks to its history.
1 Diamond "Great Mogul"
"Great Mogul" was named in honor of Shah Jahan - the ruler of the Mughal Emperor who built the Taj Mahal. Diamond found in diamond mines of Golconda in the 1650s, and its weight, amounting to 787 carats, suggests his biggest diamond in India.
Of diamond has been manufactured with diamond cut in the shape of a rose bluish. However, the first stone was lost during the war with Persia, and then after the assassination of Nadir Shah, who acquired it in 1739.
After the 1747 "Great Mogul" disappeared and never saw him again, at least in its original form.
There are many theories regarding the fate of the diamond. It is believed that out of it was later made famous diamond "Eagles", but the mystery is still not solved.
2 Diamond Cullinan
"Kullinan- I» was the largest diamond in the world as long as there has not been opened "Golden Jubilee."
It was made from a fragment of the largest in the history of the diamond - diamond "Cullinan" weighing 3,106 carats.Diamond, who is also called "The Great Star of Africa", was found Jan. 26, 1905 in South Africa. He was named after Thomas Cullinan mine owner.
"Cullinan" was presented to King Edward VII on his birthday. Faceting of the largest known diamond polishers brothers entrusted Assker from Amsterdam. Since the diamond was cracked from where it can be to make one big diamond.
Lapidary Joseph Asker few months preparing for the possibility to make one a sure hit on a stone, which would split his natural fractures. The excitement was so great that after the grand blow Asker lost consciousness, but the diamond was split into two halves.
The largest of the nine fragments obtained - diamond "Kullinan- I» adorns the scepter of the British Queen, and can be seen in the Tower of London with the rest of the decorations of the British Crown.
3 Diamond "Golden Jubilee"
"Golden Jubilee" is the largest faceted diamond in the world. Golden brown diamond pressed the "Great Star of Africa" and was opened in 1980 in the mine "Premier". For a long time he remained unnoticed, and he was sent to the famous diamond cutter Gabriel Tolkowsky to try out new tools for cutting.
Much to the surprise of many, "Golden Jubilee" was a real gem weighing 545.6 carats (cut to 755.5 carats).
The resulting diamond was blessed by Pope John Paul II, the Supreme Patriarch of the Buddhist and the Grand Imam in Thailand. He was presented to the richest king in the world - the King of Thailand during the celebration of his 50th birthday.
4 Diamond "Eagles"
"Eagles" is the largest diamond Diamond Fund of the Moscow Kremlin. The origin of the stone, shaped and proportions of half a hen's egg, goes back to the 18th century in the southern part of India. Although part of the story, "Orlov" has been lost, it is believed that he once served as an eye statues in Indian temple.
The stone was stolen Frenchman who took Hinduism and even became a novice in the temple to carry out his plan.
As a result, the diamond was sold to Count Orlov, who presented it to Catherine II.
"Eagles" - pure brilliant white with a bluish-green tint is a rarity, as it has retained its original facet of Indian rose.
5 Diamond "Sancy"
The most famous owner of the diamond "Sancy" is King Henry III, who, having obtained a stone from his attorney Nicolas de Sancy. Stone served as an ornament for covering up beret premature baldness king.
According to legend, a messenger, who was to deliver the stone, was killed. However, the faithful servant kept stone, which once opened found in his stomach.
The diamond was sold to King James I, then Cardinal Mazarin, who left it to King Louis XIV. During the French Revolution, he disappeared along with the Regent diamond and diamond Hope.
As a result, "Sancy" was sold to the Louvre for a million francs, and is still stored there. Its price has not been established, it is considered priceless.
6 Diamond "Kohinur"
Diamond "Kohinur" or "Mountain of Light" is famous for its long history. The first mention of it appeared in 1304, when King Babur found a diamond, and since then he has passed all the rulers of the Mughal Empire - the State on the territory of modern India and Pakistan.
Hindus, Mughals, Persians, Afghans, Sikhs and the British desperately fought for the right to possess it for a long history.Almost all owners "Kohinur" suffered evil fate: death, poison, betrayal. From the once huge stone 793 carats, 105 carats left (21.6 grams).
In 1850, the diamond was transferred to the British Queen Victoria, who wore it for a long time as a brooch. The famous "Kohinur" wore Queen Alexandra, Queen Mary, and now he is in the crown of Queen Elizabeth in the Tower of London. Its price has not been established, it is considered priceless.
7 Diamond "Hope"
Perhaps the most famous diamond in the world is "Hope" (from the English. Hope - hope). No one knows how big the stone was cut to where it was found, and who gave him the original shape. It was first mentioned by the French merchant Jean-Baptiste and sold to King Louis XIV.
Some experts believe that it was stolen from a statue of the ancient Indian goddess Sita. He moved to King Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette, was stolen and then re-emerged in 1829. Banker Henry Hope bought the diamond, and in his honor called the stone.
Numerous subsequent owners of the "Hope" suffered a sad fate: the violent death, illness, loss of a child, and accidents.Fatal stone gained fame cursed, and it was believed that all who touch it will die a horrible death.
Since 1958, the diamond is in the Smithsonian Institution in the United States. Its price is $ 350 million.
8 Regent Diamond
Almaz Regent also known as the "Queen of Hearts" was found in 1698 at the mine slave, who eventually paid for it with his life. The captain, who found the hidden diamond killed a slave, sold a stone weighing 410 carats of Indian traders, and then the British errand Pete Thomas in 1701. He was reduced to 141 carats.
Regent diamond is considered to be one of the most beautiful in the world. He is white, but with subtle bluish tint, which is not seen everything. Diamond was the decoration of Marie Antoinette, Napoleon, King Louis XVIII, Charles X and Napoleon III.Now he is in the famous Louvre museum.
9 Diamond "Star of the Millennium"
"Star of the Millennium" is the 10th largest and the 2nd largest diamond color group «D». Up to cut it weighed 777 carats, and after - 203 ct. Sublime diamond without external and internal flaws had exceptional purity.
The stone was purchased by «De Beers». It took more than 3 years, to give the classic pear-shaped diamond with lasers."Star of the Millennium" with 11 blue diamond was mined in the mine "Premier" in South Africa. In 2000, these amazing collection of diamonds "Millennium" were presented at the exhibition in London.
10 Taylor-Burton Diamond
Diamond weighing 241 carats, of which later made famous diamond was found in the mine "Premier" in South Africa. Renowned jeweler Harry Winston gave faceted stone, which has acquired a pear shape and began to weigh 69.42 carats. Stone surprising transparency and beauty became the first diamond sold at auction more than a million dollars.
His buyer was Richard Burton, who bought it with his wife - a famous actress Elizabeth Taylor. Elizabeth could wear such a treasure only a few times a year, under the protection of the protection, and first appeared with him at the celebration of the birth of Princess Grace of Monaco.
When the actress divorced Burton, she sold the diamond for $ 5 million, and the money has built a hospital in Botswana. It is believed that this is the first case where the diamond brought something other than misery. Source